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Horse Armor of Duke Ulrich of Württemberg, for use in the field

Horse Armor of Duke Ulrich of Württemberg, for use in the field

Made by the armorer Wilhelm von Worms the Elder, German (active Nuremberg), master in 1499, died 1538 Geography: Made in Nuremberg, Germany, Europe Date: 1507 Medium: Embossed, etched, and partially blued and gilded steel; brass; lea...


Documenting the dynamics of swords (Necessary measurements)

Documenting the dynamics of swords (Necessary measurements)

Necessary measurements   Measuring pivot points as accurately as possible is essential in order to acquire reliable information about mass distribution. Pivot points occur in pairs and are an effect of the rotational inertia of th...


Documenting the dynamics of swords (Effects of mass distribution)

Documenting the dynamics of swords (Effects of mass distribution)

The quality of a sword is often described by its metallurgical properties: the purity of the steel and the sharpness, hardness and resiliency of the blade. These are naturally important qualities for a weapon but the way it behaves when put in mot...


Helm for the Joust of Peace

Helm for the Joust of Peace

Date: ca. 1500 Geography: probably Nuremberg Culture: German, probably Nuremberg Medium: Steel, copper alloy Dimensions: H. 17 3/4 in. (45 cm); W. 11 1/2 in. (29.2 cm); D. 18 in. (45.7 cm); Wt. 17 lb. 14 oz...


Armor Garniture of King Henry VIII of England (reigned 1509–47)

Armor Garniture of King Henry VIII of England (reigned 1509–47)

This is the earliest dated armor from the royal workshops at Greenwich, which were established in 1515 by Henry VIII (reigned 1509–47) to produce armors for himself and his court. It is also the earliest surviving Greenwich garniture, an arm...


Armor of Henry II, King of France (reigned 1547–59)

Armor of Henry II, King of France (reigned 1547–59)

This is one of the most elaborate and complete French parade armors, and it retains much of its original coloring. The surfaces are covered by dense foliate scrolls inhabited by human figures and a variety of fabulous creatures that derive from th...


German ,  Triple-Combed Open Burgonet

German , Triple-Combed Open Burgonet

German , perhaps Augsburg  Triple-Combed Open Burgonet about 1550–1555 steel with restored leather strap and buckle 27.9 × 45.7 × 31.8 cm (11 × 18 × 12 1/2 in.), 4 lb 10 oz (weight) Deep ...


"Bracelet" Cowter

"Bracelet" Cowter

German  "Bracelet" Cowter about 1560 steel with black paint 19 × 11 × 18 cm (7 1/2 × 4 5/16 × 7 1/16 in.), 12 oz (weight) The John Woodman Higgins Armory Collection  Blackened wit...


Close Helmet with Mask Visor in Form of a Human Face

Close Helmet with Mask Visor in Form of a Human Face

Armorer: Attributed to Kolman Helmschmid (German, Augsburg 1471–1532) Date: ca. 1515 Geography: Augsburg Culture: German, Augsburg Medium: Steel, gold Dimensions: H. 12 in. (30.5 cm); W. 9 3/...


Helmet (Spangenhelm)

Helmet (Spangenhelm)

Date: 6th–7th century Culture: Byzantine or Germanic Medium: Iron, copper alloy, gold Dimensions: H. 8 9/16 in. (21.8 cm); Diam. 7 13/16 in. (19.9 cm); Wt. 2 lb. (907 g) This helmet comes from a small group of closely related...


Armor Garniture of George Clifford

Armor Garniture of George Clifford

Armor Garniture of George Clifford (1558–1605), Third Earl of Cumberland Armorer: Made under the direction of Jacob Halder (British, master armorer at the royal workshops at Greenwich, documented in England 1558–1608) Date...


The Function of Armor in Medieval and Renaissance Europe

The Function of Armor in Medieval and Renaissance Europe

Although today appreciated as works of art or as examples of historical technology, it must be noted that all armor, whether used in warfare, tournaments, or parades, once had a “working lifetime.” Often these objects have been subject...


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